Sustainable systems should incorporate features that create a range of benefits, including for wildlife.
Nature conservation in the UK has traditionally focused on the preservation of specific sites. But outside these few places, natural habitats have been lost on an unprecedented scale and many species, both common and rare, are in long-term decline. As the demand for land for agriculture, housing and development has increased, so the room for wildlife and natural processes has decreased. This has resulted in small oases of wildlife-rich protected land, such as nature reserves, becoming surrounded by an otherwise inhospitable landscape for many plants and animals. The UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), is the UK Government's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and 1,149 species and 65 habitats in the UK were identified as in need of conservation and greater protection.