Sheep and cattle

Over-grazing is a key cause of soil degradation and the decline of grassland ecology, while the introduction of intensive stock razing often leads to deforestation, so managing livestock in a way that protects local ecology is very important.

Livestock production may also be a more successful way of producing food from upland and marginal land than vegetable or fruit cultivation. Permaculture techniques can be applied to stock raising to minimise environmental impact, improve animal welfare, and maximise food production.