In small scale horticulture, a highly effective technique is the creation of permanent growing beds separated by access paths.
These beds can be cultivated for maximum fertility and soil structure, without ever being walked on. Loosening of the soil by deep digging, regular additions of bulky organic matter, and lack of soil compaction mean that the growing beds in such systems will become raised above the paths. This process can be encouraged by the creation of wooden frames to contain the soil in the beds. Raised beds allow the concentration of plant food, water and human labour in a limited area without any being wasted on the paths.